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Our Technical Team

Blogs

  • Routing & Switching

    string(7652) "IS-IS Standards History
    • ISO 10589 specifies OSI IS-IS routing protocol for CLNS traffic
    • Tag/Length/Value (TLV) options to enhance the protocol A Link State protocol with a 2 level
    • RFC 1195 added IP support
    • IS-IS runs on top of the Data Link Layer
    • Requires CLNP to be configured
    • RFC5308 adds IPv6 address family support to IS-IS
    • RFC5I20 defines Multi-Topology concept for IS-IS
    • Permits IPv4 and IPv6 topologies which are not identical
    Terminology
    • AIT: Authority and Format Identifier (the first octet of all OSI NSAP addresses—identifies format of the rest of the address)
    • CLNP: Connection-Less Network Protocol (ISO 8473—the OSI connectionless network layer protocol—very similar to IP)
    • ES: End System (the OSI term for a host)
    • IS; Intermediate System(the OSI term for a router)
    • ES-IS :End System to Intermediate System routing exchange protocol
    • (ISO 9542—OSI protocol between routers and end systems)
    • IS-IS : Intermediate System to Intermediate System routing exchange protocol (the ISO protocol for routing within a single routing domain)
    • IS-IS Hello :A Hello packet (defined by the IS-IS protocol)
    • LSP: Link State Packet (a type of packet used by the IS-IS protocol)
    • TLV: Type Length Value
    ISIS features
    • Open standard (OSI)
    • First developed by DEC and It was standardized by the ISO in 1992 communication between network devices which are termed Intermediate Systems by the ISO.
    • Link-state routing protocol
    • Classless
    • VLSM and Manual summary
    • Work on SPF or Dijkstra algonthm
    • Incremental / trigger updates
    • Updates are send as unicast /multicast (Layer 2)
    • Metric= default (Cisco)
    • Administrative distance = 115
    • It is used by large ISP
    • Protocol independent i.e. Support IP, IPX. hippie Talk
    Integrated or Dual IS-IS
    • Originally IS-IS was ECP for OSI layer, later developed to support TCP/IP called as DUAL IS-IS
      • Dual IS-IS works with this change features:
      • Function similar as any other IGP routing protocol
      • Fast convergence ( default hello = 10 sec . dead timer = 3 times of hello)
      • Stable
      • Make efficient use of bandwidth, memory &CPU resources
    METRIC in ISIS
    • Cisco supports only default metric
    • e. Metric= 10 on any type of interface ( ex : serial/Ethemet/fastethemet/gigethemet)
    • Narrow metrics
    • Max value on interface can be 64 (6bit) and 1024 (10bit) per path in routing table
    • Other venders support different types of metrics (default, delay, expense, error)
    IS IS Levels
    • ISIS has a 2 layer hierarchy
    • Level-2 (the backbone)
    • Level- 1 (the areas)
    • IS-IS support three type of router levels
    1. Level- 1 (LI) router (intra-area routing)
    2. Level-2 (L2) router (inter-area routing)
    3. Level-1-2 (L1L2) router (intra and inter-area routing)
    • Manually Need to define IS-type
    • Default is level 1 /Level 2
    Level 1 Router
    • Establishes neighbor ship with only LI and Ll/12 routers
    • It acts like OSPF internal router (totally stub)
    • Has the Level 1 LSDB with all routing information for the area
    • It has a default route pointing towards nearest L1/L2 router
    • LI should be continuous within a area.
    Level 2 Router
    • Establishes neighbor ship with only L2 and L1/L2 routers
    • It act like OSPF Backbone router
    • Has a Level 2 LSDB with all information about inter-area routing
    • L2 should be continuous within a domain with other L2 orLl/L2 router
    Level 1/Level 2 Routers
    • Establishes neighbor ship with all LI , L2 and Ll/L2 routers
    • It act like OSPF ABR
    • Has two LSDBs:
    • Level 1 for the intra-area routing
    • Level 2 for file inter-area routing
    • if the router has adjacencies to other areas, lt will inform the Level 1 routers (intra-area) it is a potential exit point for the area
    • L1/L2 should be continuous within a domain with other L2 or Ll/L2 router
    Backbone & Areas
    • ISIS does not have a backbone area as such (like OSPF)
    • Instead the backbone is the contiguous collection of Level-2/ or Level 1-2 capable routers
    • ISIS area borders are on links, not routers
    • Each router is identified with Network Entity Title (NET)
    • NET is an NSAP where the n-selector is 0
     Backbone must be L2 contiguous  EXAMPLE-1 EXAMPLE-2 An Addressing Example Identifying Systems in IS-IS
    • The area address uniquely identifies the routing area and the System ID identifies each node
    • All routers within an area must use the same area address
    • An ES maybe adjacent to a level-1 router only if they both share a common area address
    • Area address is used in level-2 routing
    • System ID maybe the MAC address (CLNS) or IP address of an interface (IP world)
    • System ID used in level-1 routing and has to be unique within an area (and of same length)
    • System ID has to be unique within level-2 routers that form routing domain
    • General recommendation: domain-wide unique System ID
    AREA COMPARISION OF OSPF with ISIS ISIS PDU ISIS PDU is directly encapsulated in to data-link header. There is no CLNP or IP header.
    1. Hello
    2. LSP
    3. CSNP
    4. PSNP
     OSPF and ISIS Similarities
    • Both use the same method of topology abstraction
    • Both use [ practically}the same flooding algorithm
    • Both use [practically] the same Dijkstra algorithm
    • Both provide IP routing information
    OSPF and ISIS Major differences
    • History
    • Transport protocol
    • PDU format
    • Details of hierarchical routing
     "

    Intermediate System - Intermediate System (IS-IS) Protocol

    IS-IS Standards History ISO 10589 specifies OSI IS-IS routing protocol for CLNS traffic Tag/Length/Value (TLV) options to enhance the protocol...

    2019-02-23 12:46:40

    OCTA NETWORKS

  • Routing & Switching

    string(4626) "

    BGP Attributes

     BGP support a wide variety of path attribute, BGP chooses a route to a network based on the attributes of its path.

    Four categories of attributes exist are as follows:-

    • Well-know mandatory
    • Well-known discretionary
    • Optional transitive
    • Optional non-transitive

    Well-known mandatory attribute must be recognized by all BGP routers, present in all BGP updates, and passed on to other BGP routers. AS path, origin, and next hop.

    Well-known discretionary must be recognized by all BGP routers and passed on to other BGP routers but need not be present in an update. Local preference

    Optional transitive might or might not be recognized by a BGP router but is passed on to other BGP routers.

    If not recognized, it is marked as partial. Aggregation, community.

    Optional non-transitive If the BGP process does not recognize the attribute then it can ignore the update and not advertise the path to its peer. Multi-exit discriminator (MED), originator ID

     AS_Path attribute- this particular path attribute lists the autonomous system numbers in the end-to-end path.BGP uses AS_Path as its primary loop-prevention tool.

     AS_Path attribute is a well-known mandatory attribute. its list of AS through which updates are coming. The shortest AS_PATH list is more desirable.

    Next_hop is a well-known, mandatory attribute next hop means IP address to reach next autonomous system because BGP is AS by AS routing protocol.

    Origin attribute

    origin informs all AS in internetwork how network got introduced into BGP.

     (i)  represent IGP

     (e) represent EBGP

     (?) represent incomplete

    Weight Attribute is a cisco's attribute. its tell how to exit the AS, path with the highest weight is more desirable. weight is partial attribute, by default weight 0 learn route 32,769 for locally injected routes. its local to the router not advertise to any BGP peers.

    Local Preference Attribute

    Local preference define how to data traffic should exit from an Autonomous system. path with highest preference value is more desirable by default is 100, and the range 0 through 232  local preference is well known, discretionary attribute it is advertise only to iBGP neighbor within an Autonomous system.

    R3#show ip bgp

    BGP table version is 5, local router ID is 13.0.3.1

    Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,

                  r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter,

                  x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed,

    Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

    RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

         Network          Next Hop            Metric       LocPrf     Weight     Path

     r>i 10.0.0.0         11.0.0.1                 0                100            0            i

     r>i 20.0.0.0         12.0.0.1                 0                100            0            i

     *>  30.0.0.0         0.0.0.0                  0                                32768       i

     r>i 40.0.0.0         14.0.0.1                 0                 100           0             i

    "

    BGP Attributes

    BGP Attributes  BGP support a wide variety of path attribute, BGP chooses a route to a network based on the attributes of its path. Four categori...

    2019-01-12 13:43:16

    OCTA NETWORKS

  • COLLABORATION

    string(7668) "
    Concepts
    • In CUCM v10, new attributes were introduced to DN which are Enterprise Alternate Number and +E164 Alternate Number.
      • Each DN can be represented with 3 numbers
      • For example, the DN can be 3459, Enterprise Alternate DN 3103459, +E164 Alternate DN +97145673459 or 045673459
      • By default Enterprise Alternate Number and +E164 Alternate Number aren't reachable locally within the cluster
        • This can be enabled by checking 'Add to Local Route Partition' under DN configuration
        • Assign the PT to phones CSS
      • You can assign Enterprise Alternate Number or +E164 Alternate Number as PSTN failover
        • PSTN failover will be used when the destination SIP trunk isn't reachable
        • This PSTN failover is applicable for called Enterprise Alternate Number, called +E164 Alternate Number or called Directory URI
        • CUCM will try to dial the PSTN failover number
        • Calling Phone AAR CSS will be used to reach the PSTN Failover
    • GDPR and ILS and two independent components
      • ILS network will be established between ILS enabled clusters to exchange route strings
      • GDPR will advertise GDPR data over ILS enabled network
      • GDPR data can be
        • Local Directory URIs
        • Local Enterprise Alternate Numbers
        • Local +E164 Alternate Numbers
        • Local Enterprise Alternate Patterns
        • Local +E164 Alternate Patterns
        • Imported Alternate Numbers, Alternate Patterns and URIs
        • Learned Numbers, Patterns and URIs
        • PSTN Failover
      • Actual Call Routing is based on SIP Patterns of Route Strings pointing to SIP Trunks
    • Instead of advertising large number of Alternate Numbers, you can create Alternate Pattern to be advertised
      • You can create Enterprise Alternate Pattern and +E164 Alternate Pattern
      • These patterns can't be used for local dialing
      • For Pattern PSTN failover, there are 3 options:
        • No PSTN Failover, i.e. if SIP trunk isn't reachable, call will fail
        • Use Pattern as PSTN Failover Number - This will use the same pattern as PSTN failover
        • Apply Strip Digits and Prepend Digits to Pattern and Use for PSTN Failover
    • You must assign learnt numbers/patterns to partitions
      • GDPR patterns can't be left in None partition
      • The default partitions created are
        • Global Learned E164 Numbers - This will be assigned to Learnt +E164 Alternate Numbers
        • Global Learned E164 Patterns - This will be assigned to Learnt +E164 Alternate Patterns
        • Global Learned Enterprise Numbers - This will be assigned to Learnt Enterprise Alternate Numbers
        • Global Learned Enterprise Patterns - This will be assigned to Learnt Enterprise Alternate Patterns
      • These partitions should be included in phones CSSes to be able to dial remote cluster numbers
      • In case of overlap between Alternate Number and Pattern, Longest match is applied
    • If you are using CUBE within ILS network, you need to enable Send ILS Learned Destination Route String
      • When enabled, CUCM can tag the route string in the SIP header x-cisco-dest-route-string
      • CUBE can use the voice-class route route-tag feature to route using route-tag
      Configuration  
    1. Activate Inter-cluster Lookup Service
    2. Navigate to Enterprise Parameters
      1. Configure unique cluster name for each ILS cluster
      2. Configure Cluster Fully Qualified Domain Name
      3. Configure Organization Top Level Domain
    3. Navigate to Advanced Features > ILS Configuration
      1.  Select Cluster Role
      2. Configure Route String
      3. Configure Synchronization Timer
      4. Enable Advertise Global Dial Plan Replication Data to Remote Clusters
      5. Configure ILS Authentication (TLS or Password)
    4. Navigate to Phone DN
      1. Under Enterprise Alternate Number
        1. Configure Number Mask - The Alternate Number will be generated based on DN and Mask
        2. Enable Advertise Globally via ILS
        3. Enable Add to Local Partition and select the partition - This can make the Alternate number reachable locally within the cluster
      2. Under +E164 Alternate Number
        1. Configure Number Mask - The Alternate Number will be generated based on DN and Mask
        2. Enable Advertise Globally via ILS
        3. Enable Add to Local Partition and select the partition - This can make the Alternate number reachable locally within the cluster
      3. Configure Directory URI (this is covered in separate section)
      4. Under PSTN Failover for Enterprise Alternate Number, +E.164 Alternate Number, and URI Dialing assign +E164 or Enterprise Alternate Number as PSTN failover
    5. Navigate to Call Routing > Global Dial Plan Replication > Advertised Pattern > Add New
      1. Configure Pattern
      2. Select Pattern Type (Enterprise Alternate or +E164 Alternate)
      3. Configure PSTN Failover Policy
    6. Navigate to Call Routing > Global Dial Plan Replication > Partitions for Learned Numbers and Patterns
      1. Select the Partition for each GDPR Data Type
      2. You can mark GDPR Data as Urgent Priority
    7. Navigate to Call Routing > Global Dial Plan Replication > Blocked Learned Patterns (this will define numbers/patterns not to be installed in database)
    8. You can view Learnt Numbers and Patterns from Call Routing > Global Dial Plan Replication tab
    9. If you ILS SIP Trunks are pointing to CUBE, configure SIP Profile with Send ILS Learned Destination Route String enabled
    "

    Understanding & Configuring Global Dial Plan Replication (GDPR) on CUCM.

    Concepts In CUCM v10, new attributes were introduced to DN which are Enterprise Alternate Number and +E164 Altern...

    2018-12-23 07:28:33

    OCTA NETWORKS

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